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Focused on competition, US defense budget highlights high-tech equipment R&D

聚焦大國競爭,美2022財年國防預算申請加大高新裝備研發投入

來源:China Military Online責任編輯:Li Wei
2021-07-08 23:51

吳敏文

By Wu Minwen

近日,拜登政府向國會提交了任上首份財年國防預算案,總額高達7529億美元。就此次預算的各項內容配比來看,其結構調整方向是減少海外干預及應急軍事行動,加大創新研發力度,促進美軍轉型和戰鬥力提升。這既是美國近年來從伊拉克、敍利亞、阿富汗等中東地區撤軍,聚焦“大國競爭”軍事準備的繼續,也是未來美國國防戰略和軍費支出的主要方向。

The Biden administration recently submitted its first fiscal year defense budget to Congress, totaling $752.9 billion. Its structural adjustment is to reduce overseas intervention and emergency military operations, increase innovative research and development efforts, and promote the transformation of the US military and the improvement of its combat effectiveness. This is not only the continuation of the US military preparations focusing on great-power competition as it withdrew from the Middle East regions such as Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan in recent years, but also indicates the main direction of future US defense strategy and military expenditure.

美軍淘汰老舊裝備以優化裝備結構、全力研發高新技術及裝備、優化人員結構,顯示美軍正在利用戰爭間隙期,推動軍隊建設轉型、戰鬥力升級,努力擴大優勢,確保霸權地位。

Eliminating outdated equipment to optimize the equipment structure, fully developing high-tech and equipment, and optimizing the personnel structure manifest that the US military is taking advantage of the inter-war period to promote the transformation of military construction, upgrade combat effectiveness, strive to expand its advantages and ensure its hegemony.

較大規模的裝備退役將使美軍水面艦艇部隊和美軍空軍機隊的規模均有縮減。但同時也必須看到,即使是美軍即將淘汰的裝備,同世界其他國家的武器裝備相比,仍然具有很大優勢。例如,F-22、F-35等第五代戰機是美軍當前主戰機種,其四代機已經進入淘汰程序,而屬於二代機的F-4“鬼怪”式戰機伊朗至今仍在使用。

Large-scale equipment retirement will reduce the size of the surface fleet and the Air Force aircraft of the US. But compared with that of other countries, even the equipment to be phased out by the US military still has great advantages. For example, fifth-generation fighter jets such as F-22 and F-35 replacing the fourth-generation are currently the main fighter jets of the US military. However, the second-generation F-4 Phantom fighter jets are still used by Iran.

與此同時,新的財年雖然美軍武器採購總量和現役部隊規模有所下降,但精確彈藥採購量卻在明顯增加。在常規彈藥採購量從上個財年的50億美元鋭減至39億美元的同時,可打擊機動目標的空地精準炸彈等精確彈藥的採購量卻不斷上升。

Meanwhile, although the total amount of US military weapons purchases and the size of active forces have declined in the new fiscal year, the purchase of precision ammunition increases significantly. While the purchase of conventional ammunition drops sharply from $5 billion in the last fiscal year to $3.9 billion, the purchase of precision ammunition such as air-to-ground precision-guided munition that can strike maneuvering targets increases continuously.

本次預算中的研究、發展、試驗與鑑定經費高達1120億美元,比2021財年增長5.1%,主要投向包括微電子、高超音速導彈、人工智能、網絡空間能力和5G網絡等。特別是高超音速武器方面,38億美元的預算將使得美國陸、海、空三軍都將具備高超音速遠程精確打擊能力。能源部分的277億美元將用於核投送能力現代化,主要包括戰略轟炸機、彈道導彈核潛艇、下一代空射戰略巡航導彈和陸基洲際彈道導彈的研發工作。

The budget for research, development, testing, and appraisal is as high as $112 billion, an increase of 5.1 percent over the 2021 fiscal year. The budget is mainly invested in microelectronics, hypersonic missiles, artificial intelligence, cyberspace capabilities, and 5G networks. Especially in hypersonic weapons, the budget of $3.8 billion will enable the US Army, Navy, and Air Force with the capability of hypersonic long-range precision strikes. The $27.7 billion in the energy sector will be used for the modernization of nuclear delivery capabilities, mainly including the research and development of strategic bombers, ballistic missile submarines, next-generation air-launched strategic cruise missiles, and land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles.

在人員構成方面,新的財年預算要求將美軍現役和預備役部隊的總員額從2021財年的215.0375萬人減至214.59萬人,減少4475人。但是,太空軍員額逆勢增長,從2021財年的6434人擴大到8400人,增加1966人,這反映出美軍對太空軍的高度重視,此舉也是從整體上優化美軍的人員結構。

In terms of personnel composition, the new fiscal year budget requires that the total number of US military active and reserve forces will be reduced from 2,150,375 in fiscal 2021 to 2,145,900, a reduction of 4,475. However, the number of space forces has grown against the trend, expanding from 6,434 in fiscal 2021 to 8,400, an increase of 1,966. This reflects that the US military attaches great importance to the space military, which is also an overall optimization of the US military personnel structure.

拜登政府的第一個財年即在上屆政府軍費高企的基礎上繼續增加,有被特朗普政策綁架的因素,也有其主動追隨的原因。一方面,已經被特朗普政府炒熱了的“印太戰略”難以逆轉,拜登政府只能蕭規曹隨;另一方面,美國政府和社會已經深受“中國威脅論”毒害,再加上美國社會內部因種族矛盾、新冠肺炎疫情、經濟下滑等造成的社會亂象,使得拜登政府需要繼續用中國話題轉移矛盾、安撫民心、緩解焦慮。

The Biden administration continued to increase the military budget on the basis of the high military expenditures of the previous administration, which is not only kidnapped by Trump's policies, but also of the Biden administration’s own accord. On the one hand, the Indo-Pacific Strategy hyped by the Trump administration is difficult to reverse, and the Biden administration has to follow. On the other hand, the US government and society have been deeply poisoned by the so-called "China threat theory". Coupled with the social chaos caused by racial conflicts, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the economic downturn in American society, the government needs to use the China topic to divert conflicts, reassure the people and alleviate anxiety.

然而,即使拜登政府努力加大國防投入,仍然受到國會共和黨方面的嚴厲批評。共和黨議員、參議院軍事委員會高級成員吉姆•英霍夫認為:“拜登政府的國防預算遠遠不夠給我們的軍人提供他們需要的資源、設備和訓練。”共和黨眾議員邁克•羅傑斯更是指責拜登“謊報軍費”,稱“預算申請軍費增加不誠實,因為它的漲幅甚至趕不上通脹,相對於3%-5%的通脹,這實際上是一個軍費削減的預算案。”

However, the Biden administration’s efforts to increase defense investment didn’t avoid the criticism from the Republicans in Congress. Republican congressman and senior member of the Senate Armed Services Committee Jim Inhofe said that President Biden's defense budget request is wholly inadequate — it's nowhere near enough to give our service members the resources, equipment and training they need." Republican Congressman Mike Rogers even accused Biden of lying about military spending, saying that the budget for military spending increases is dishonest because its increase does not even keep up with inflation. Compared with the three percent to five percent in inflation, this budget cuts military spending.

由此可見,美國能夠提供的國防預算與它惡性膨脹的霸權目標之間的矛盾日益凸顯。擺脱這種困境的出路,是放棄冷戰思維與對抗思路,走大國合作與互利共贏之路。否則投入再多的資源,即使更大力度減少民生福利增大軍費開支,也無法確保美國的絕對優勢與安全。

This shows that the contradiction between the defense budget provided by the US and its viciously inflated hegemonic goal has become increasingly prominent. The way out of such a dilemma is to abandon the Cold War mentality and confrontation and take the road of cooperation and mutual benefit among major powers. Otherwise, no matter how much resources are invested, greater efforts to reduce the welfare of the people and increase military spending can not guarantee the absolute advantage and security of the US.

 

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